This was a valuable insight as it helped to show that deviance was not caused by biological factors. At this level possible answers might also include some of the following: Here poor people not only reject the goal of success and the means of working but work actively to bring about a new society with a new value system.
These answers will deal with two or more subcultural theories. Interpretation and application will be more fully focused and evaluation more thorough, and answers may show a clear rationale in the organisation of material leading to a distinct conclusion.
While this approach is clearly acceptable it is only a partial answer to the question set. This is a derivative of Sociology: Outline and assess the usefulness of consensus approaches such as functionalism in explaining the causes and the extent of deviance in society.
Assess the strengths and limitations of overt participant observation as a means of investigating police attitudes. For instance Marsland and Murray argue that increased welfare and a growing climate of permissiveness from the sixties has encouraged deviance in the form of single parenthood and criminality.
Candidates may draw empirical material from across the specification or, alternatively, may choose to focus on one particular topic area, such as religion. The illegitimate opportunity structure is seen as useful in explaining subcultural crime and deviance because for some people there is a criminal opportunity structure and is easy to identify which category they fall into and how it is easier to move from one to another depending on the values and morals in each group.
Most sociologists attribute this difference to gender socialization. He agrees with Durkheim that value consensus exists but not that all members have the same opportunity of realising the shared values.
The relationship between sociology and social policy. To Merton there are five ways in which members of American society could respond to success goals, the first being conformity which is striving or success by means of accepted channels.
Greater awareness of the nature and complexity of sociology and sociological research Greater understanding of the ideological issues in the debates within sociology Greater understanding of the decision.
Some become innovators, some retreatist and some rebel and completely reject the system. They rob people or banks, commit fraud, or use other illegal means of acquiring money or property.
Simply put, the poor cannot afford good attorneys, private investigators, and the other advantages that money brings in court. This can lead to a state of anomie in which an individual suffering from anomie would strive to attain the common goals of a specific society yet would not be able to reach these goals legitimately ecause of the structural limitations in society.
The concepts of modernity and post-modernity in relation to sociological theory. On the other hand it is not just Functionalist writers who believe that society is based on a consensus. Gender, crime, and justice. Is that because the bad relationships prompt the youths to be delinquent, as Hirschi thought?
Assess the usefulness of realist theories for our understanding of crime.
However, Merton believes that deviance occurs as a result of culture and structure of society. As a result the individual would exhibit deviant behaviour. Cloward and Ohlin said that Merton had failed to appreciate that there was a parallel opportunity structure to the legal one which is called the illegitimate opportunity structure.
Delinquent subcultures are linked to illegitimate opportunity subcultures, present in the zone of transition.
Cohenwhose status frustration theory says that lower-class boys do poorly in school because schools emphasize middle-class values. Merton argues that all Americans are socialised into the cultural goals of society but that some are not properly socialised into the institutional means things like education as a mechanism of achievement.
It is wrong to assume as Functionalists do that it is simply them and us. Durkheim used them to study suicide and later writers have used official statistics to establish trends and to measure the extent of crime in society.
In this band, interpretation, application, analysis and evaluation will be explicit and relevant. The underclass and antipoverty policy. He argued that this would normally occur in periods of great social change or stress, where the collective conscience may be weakened.
June Examine some of the reasons why females may be less likely than males to commit crimes. Because Merton developed his strain theory in the aftermath of the Great Depression, in which the labor and socialist movements had been quite active, it is not surprising that he thought of rebellion as a logical adaptation of the poor to their lack of economic success.
He believes that society in is consensus over values.The essay will look at historical subcultural theories and explanations which play a role in explaining youth offending behaviour.
Crime and deviance subcultural explanations of deviance advocate that those individuals who commit deviant behaviours share similar values which are to an extent differentiated from the main values of society.
This essay will evaluate the sociological theories associated with crime and deviance and to compare and contrast these main theories. And find links between these theories to today’s society.
And find links between these theories to today’s society. Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Subcultural Theories in Explaining `Subcultural Crime and Deviance' in Society Today.
In conclusion subcultural theories are useful in explaining subcultural crime and deviance in society today because categorising people into particular groups allows it easier to compare and allows people to justify reasons for committing the crimes rather than just stereotyping particular people, and as seen in the Chicago study using.
Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of subcultural theories in explaining ‘subcultural crime and deviance’ in society today (21 marks) Subcultural theories believe that people who commit a crime share different values to the rest of society.
Subcultural theorists argue that deviance is the result of whole groups breaking off from society who have deviant values (subcultures) and deviance is a result of these individuals conforming to the values and norms of the subculture to which they belong.Download